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Treaty 4

Binomial Name: Canada
Date: 15 September 1874
Place:Fort Walsh
State/Country:Manitoba, Canada
Subject Matter:Land Settlement
Summary Information:
Detailed Information:
Following the establishment of a council mandated to negotiate with the Cree and Saulteaux (Ojibwa) Tribes of Indians the terms of a treaty permitting the Crown to open new parcels of land for settlement, immigration and trade, Treaty No 4 was signed on 15 September 1874 at Fort Walsh, Manitoba.

The treaty covers the area '[c]ommencing at a point on the United States frontier due south of the north-western point of the Moose Mountains; thence due north to said point of said mountains: thence in a north-easterly course to a point two miles due west of Fort Ellice; thence in a line parallel with and two miles westward from the Assiniboine River to the mouth of the Shell River; thence parallel to the said river and two miles distant therefrom to its source; thence in a straight line to a point on the western shore of Lake Winnipegosis, due west from the most northern extremity of Waterhen Lake; thence east to the centre of Lake Winnipegosis; thence northwardly, through the middle of the said lake (including Birch Island), to the mouth of Red Deer River; thence westwardly and southwestwardly along and including the said Red Deer River and its lakes, Red Deer and Etoimaini, to the source of its western branch; thence in a straight line to the source of the northern branch of the Qu'Appelle; thence along and including said stream to the forks near Long Lake; thence along and including the valley of the west branch of the Qu'Appelle to the South Saskatchewan; thence along and including said river to the mouth of Maple Creek; thence southwardly along said creek to a point opposite the western extremity of the Cypress Hills; thence due south to the international boundary; thence east along the said boundary to the place of commencement'.

The treaty was signed on behalf of the Cree and Salteaux tribes by Ka-ki-shi-way, or 'Loud Voice,' (Qu'Appelle River); Pis-qua, or 'The Plain' (Leech Lake); Ka-wey-ance, or 'The Little Boy' (Leech Lake); Ka-kee-na-wup, or 'One that sits like an Eagle' (Upper Qu'Appelle Lakes); Kus-kee-tew-mus-coo-mus-qua, or 'Little Black Bear' (Cypress Hills); Ka-ne-on-us-ka-tew, or 'One that walks on four claws' (Little Touchwood Hills); Cau-ah-ha-cha-pew, or 'Making ready the Bow' (South side of the South Branch of the Saskatchewan); Kii-si-caw-ah-chuck, or 'Day-Star' (South side of the South Branch of the Saskatchewan); Ka-na-ca-toose, 'The Poor Man' (Touchwood Hills and Qu'Appelle Lakes); Ka-kii-wis-ta-haw, or 'Him that flies around' (towards the Cypress Hills); Cha-ca-chas (Qu'Appelle River); Wah-pii-moose-too-siis, or 'The White Calf' (or Pus-coos) (Qu'Appelle River); Gabriel Cote, or Mee-may, or 'The Pigeon' (Fort Pelly).

The terms of the treaty state that the Indians were to cede, release, surrender and yield to her Majesty's government all their rights, title and privileges whatsoever, to the lands mentioned above. They were required to maintain peace and order, strictly observe the treaty, and conduct themselves as loyal and good subjects of the Queen.

The terms and conditions in relation to the Crown include:
a gift of 25 dollars to each chief; to each headman not exceeding four in each band 15 dollars, and to every other man, woman and child in the band, 12 dollars;
an annual payment in perpetuity, of the same sums to the Chiefs and herdsmen (not exceeding four in each band) and five dollars to every other man, woman and child in the Band;
certain trifling presents of clothing every third year, to the chiefs and headsmen;
a supply of ammunition and twine every year to the value of 750 dollars; and
presents of agricultural implements, cattle, grain, carpenter's tools etc. proportionate to the number of families in the Band engaged in farming;
reserves to be selected of the same extent in proportion to the numbers of the bands, and on the same conditions as in the previous treaty;
schools to be established on each reserve as soon as the Indians settled therein;
intoxicating liquors to be excluded; and
permission to be granted to Indians to hunt, fish and trap in the areas assigned to them.

Related Entries

  • Government of Canada - Signatory
  • People
  • Cree Indians
  • Ojibwa Indians

  • Glossary

    First Nations People of Canada | Treaty (Canada)

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